Top 8 Programming Languages You Need To Learn In 2021

By – HtmlCssMonk

As per Moore’s law, the computer processing speed doubles every 18 months. This increasing sophistication in computers has been facilitated by the introduction, and in some cases, the constant evolution of programming languages. To boil it down to finer details, it’s the code that instructs a machine of executing an action.

If you’re trying to advance in your career or change careers completely, and you realize you need to master a programming language, you might wonder which one to learn. After all, it will take time and money to learn the programming language, so you want to make the right choice from the start.

Whether you want to develop a mobile application, get a certification for programming knowledge, or learn new skills, you need to choose the right programming language to learn.

Top 8 Programming Languages You need to Learn in 2021

1. Python

Python was created in 1991 by Guido Van Rossum. It was introduced keeping simplicity and beautification in mind and is one of the best programming languages to learn in 2021 for top coders as well as engineering generalists.

It is used for scientific and computational applications like FreeCAD and Abacus, and it is also by popular websites like YouTube, Quora, Pinterest, and Instagram.

Key features are:

  • Open-source programming language
  • Extensive support modules and community development
  • Easy integration with web services
  • User-friendly data structures
  • GUI-based desktop applications

Mainly Used in:

  • Data Science
  • Data Analytics
  • Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning
  • Enterprise Application
  • Web Development

2. JavaScript

JavaScript is an object-oriented computer programming language commonly used to create interactive effects inside web browsers.

Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the three core technologies of the World Wide Web. It is also used at the front end of several popular websites like Google, Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, and Amazon.

Featuring asynchronous event handling and crisp syntax, it has found widespread use in the field of web development. What started off as a simple client-side scripting language, is now a highlight within the web development community featuring multiple frameworks for both backend and frontend development.

Key Features are:

  • JavaScript is the undisputed king in Browser programming.
  • Thanks to Node.js, JavaScript offers event-driven programming, which is especially suitable for I/O heavy tasks.
  • JavaScript has gone through massive modernization and overhaul in the last several years, especially in 2015, 2016, and later.

Mainly Used in:

  • Web Development
  • Backend Development
  • Mobile App Development
  • Serverless Computing
  • Browser Game Development

3. Java

Java is one of the most common, in-demand computer programming languages in use today. 

Well, think of some of your favorite web apps and games. It’s highly likely that Java plays a huge role in the code that makes them work. Another important factor which has kept Java’s magic intact among web development companies is its independence from platforms.

In recent years, Java has lost some of its markets to highly developer-friendly modern languages and the rise of other languages, especially Python, JavaScript.

Key Features are:

  • Java offers a powerful, feature-rich, multi-paradigm, interpreted programming language with a moderate learning curve and high developer productivity.
  • Java is strictly backward compatible, which is a crucial requirement for business applications.
  • Java’s runtime JVM is a masterpiece of Software Engineering and one of the best virtual machines in the industry.

Mainly Used in:

  • Enterprise Application Development
  • Android App Development
  • Big Data
  • Web Development

4. Go

Developed by the tech giant Google itself, Go is one of the latest players in the programming platform. It is an open-source language which makes it easy to create simple, secure, and productive software.

Development efforts behind creating Go wanted to retain useful characteristics such as static typing, runtime efficiency, networking, multiprocessing, and readability/usability of code.

Although Go is a bit feature anemic, it has become a mainstream programming language in a short period.

Key Features are:

  • Go has language-level support for Concurrency. It offers a CSP based message-passing concurrency via Goroutine (lightweight Green thread) and Channel.
  • The biggest USP of Go is its language design and simplicity. It has successfully combined the simplicity and productivity of Python and the power of C.
  • Go has embedded Garbage Collector (albeit not as mature as JVM garbage collector). Go developers can write system programming with the safety of Java, Python.

Mainly Used in:

  • System Programming
  • Serverless Computing
  • Business Applications
  • Cloud-Native Development
  • IoT

5. Swift

Swift programming language was developed by Apple Inc. and launched in 2014 to provide a single platform with diversified applications from desktop and mobile apps to cloud services and systems programming.

It was developed as an alternative to Objective-C to write applications for iOS and Mac. Deeply influenced by Python and Ruby, Swift was designed to be beginner friendly and fun to use.

Key Features are:

  • One of the main USP of Swift is its language design. With simpler, concise, and clean syntax and developer ergonomic features, it offers a more productive and better alternative to Objective-C in the Apple Ecosystem.
  • Swift also offers features of modern program languages: null safety. Also, it provides syntactic sugar to avoid the “Pyramid of Doom.”
  • As a compiled language, Swift is blazing fast as C++. It is also gaining increasing popularity in system programming and other domains.

Mainly Used in:

  • iOS App Development
  • System Programming
  • Client-side development (via WebAssembly)
  • Deep Learning
  • IoT

6. C#

Created by Microsoft, C# is considered to be one of the most powerful programming languages in the Dot NET framework.

During the early days, C# was criticized as an imitation of Java. But later, both of the languages diverged. Today, C# is a multi-paradigm programming language that is widely used not only on the Windows platform but also on the iOS/Android platform (thanks to Xamarin) and Linux platform.

Key Features are:

  • C# uses frameworks like Xamarin and .NET for building mobile applications and game development.
  • Backed by Microsoft and being in the industry for 20 years, C# has large ecosystems of libraries and frameworks.
  • Like Java, C# is also platform independent (thanks to CLR) and runs on Windows, Linux, Mobile devices.

Mainly Used in:

  • Server-Side programming
  • App development
  • Web Development
  • Game Development
  • Software for Windows Platform

7. C++

Bjarne Stroustrup has worked with Dennis Ritchie (creator of C) in Bell Lab during the 1970s. Heavily influenced by C, he first created C++ as an extension of C, adding Object-Oriented features. Over time, C++ has evolved into a multi-paradigm, general-purpose programming language.

C++ also offers full control over hardware but with the cost of accidental complexity and does not provide language-level support for memory safety and concurrency safety. 

C++ is once again gaining popularity with the rise of GPU, Containerization, Cloud computing, as it can quickly adapt itself to take advantage of Hardware or Ecosystem changes.

Key Features are:

  • Like Java, C++ is also constantly modernizing and adapting itself with changes in Hardware or Ecosystem.
  • C++ also gives full control over the underlying hardware and can run on every platform and take advantage of every kind of hardware, whether it is GPU, TPU, Container, Cloud, Mobile devices, or Microcontroller.
  • C++ is blazingly fast and used heavily in performance-critical and resource-constrained systems.

Mainly Used in:

  • System Programming
  • Game Development
  • IoT and Real-Time Systems
  • Machine Learning, Deep Learning
  • Embedded Systems, Distributed Systems


 Japanese computer scientist Yukihiro Matsumoto has created Ruby as an “Object-Oriented Scripting language” and released in 1995.

Its popularity is bolstered on Ruby on Rails, a full-stack web application framework that runs Ruby. The downside of Ruby is it that, being a dynamically typed language, it is not very easy to maintain and its flexibility makes it’s slow.

Key Features are:

  • Ruby has combined some of the best features of programming languages successfully: dynamic, object-oriented, functional, garbage-collected, and concise.
  • Although Ruby itself is not disruptive, its Web development framework Ruby on Rails is probably the most disruptive and influential Server-side Web development framework.
  • Ruby is used by some of the largest software projects like Twitter, GitHub, Airbnb, and has excellent tooling and framework support.

Mainly Used in:

  • Building web applications
  • Data analysis
  • Prototyping
  • Scripting language

Wrapping up

This concludes the list of top 8 programming languages you should learn in 2021. Ultimately, it’s you who have to decide on which programming you want to learn. So, take your time in weighing each option and choose accordingly. More importantly, make sure to hold a good command over the language that you choose for programming. Until then, enjoy coding!

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